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Coastal plain (costa), inter-Andean central highlands (sierra), and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)


Tropical along coast, becoming cooler inland at higher elevations; tropical in Amazonian jungle lowlands


Nationality: Ecuadoran(s)
Population: 15,439,429 (July 2013 est.)
Languages: Spanish (Castillian) 93% (official), Quechua 4.1%, other indigenous 0.7%, foreign 2.2%; note: Quechua and Shuar are official languages of intercultural relations; other indigenous languages are in official use by indigenous peoples in the areas they inhabit)


Roman Catholic 95%, other 5%


Ecuador is substantially dependent on its petroleum resources, which have accounted for more than half of the country's export earnings and approximately two-fifths of public sector revenues in recent years. In 1999/2000, Ecuador's economy suffered from a banking crisis, with GDP contracting by 5.3% and poverty increasing significantly. In March 2000, the Congress approved a series of structural reforms that also provided for the adoption of the US dollar.

Living Conditions

The major cities of Ecuador—Quito and Guayaquil—are modern cities with contemporary offices and apartment buildings. However, the style of housing in these two cities differs as a result of their histories and locations. Quito, in the dry Andean highlands, is characterized by beautiful colonial architecture. The city remains relatively small as a result of its isolated, high-altitude location. Guayaquil is a more modern city of over two million people. 



US Military Presence/Support






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