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Mostly grassy uplands and hills; relief is mountainous with altitude declining from west to east


Temperate; two rainy seasons (February to April, November to January); mild in mountains with frost and snow possible


Nationality: Rwandan(s)
Population: 12,337,138 (July 2014 est.) Note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AID 
Languages: Kinyarwanda only (official, universal Bantu vernacular) 93.2%, Kinyarwanda and other language(s) 6.2%, French (official) and other language(s) 0.1%, English (official) and other language(s) 0.1%, Swahili (or Kiswahili, used in commercial centers) 0.02%, other 0.03%, unspecified 0.3% (2002 est.)


Roman Catholic 49.5%, Protestant 39.4% (includes Adventist 12.2% and other Protestant 27.2%), other Christian 4.5%, Muslim 1.8%, animist 0.1%, other 0.6%, none 3.6% (2001), unspecified 0.5% (2002 est.)


Rwanda is a poor rural country with about 90% of the population engaged in (mainly subsistence) agriculture and some mineral and agro-processing. Tourism, minerals, coffee and tea are Rwanda's main sources of foreign exchange. The 1994 genocide decimated Rwanda's fragile economic base, severely impoverished the population, particularly women, and temporarily stalled the country's ability to attract private and external investment.

Living Conditions

Different social classes in Rwanda live very differently. Conditions in the city and the country also vary greatly. In the cities, rich Rwandans may live in brick houses with running water, indoor plumbing, electricity, and telephones. But most urban Rwandans live more simply. Many have small houses with mud walls and iron roofs. Most lack electricity, running water, and indoor plumbing. In rural areas, the houses vary. Some wealthy people live in brick houses with tile roofs.


Republic; presidential, multiparty system

US Military Presence/Support



Genocide Survivor/Orphan Story (7:25) (contains sensitive material)



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